Biotin's involvement in carboxylation reactions and regulating gene expression make it a vital nutrient in many metabolic activities, including that of blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol). Adequate biotin levels are necessary to maintain normal lipid metabolism, which in turn is essential to a healthy heart and cardiovascular system.45
Studies suggest that the high-carbohydrate/low-fat dietary food guidelines recommended by the USDA may actually contribute to an increased risk of biotin insufficiency. A combination of low bioavailability of biotin in grains, decreased dietary intake of high-biotin available foods like certain meats and eggs, and inhibition of bacterial synthesis of biotin related to high-carbohydrate metabolism all contribute to this dietary risk of insufficient biotin.8
Over the long-term, the metabolic activities - including the synthesis of essential fatty acids and glucose metabolism - that rely on biotin become impaired because of the lack of biotin. Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency is associated with carbohydrate metabolism and insufficient biotin, and is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. Insufficient biotin results in impaired synthesis of long-chain EFAs, even with adequate consumption of essential fatty acids. Insulin resistance (and adult-onset diabetes) resulting from impaired glucose metabolism also contributes to heart disease.8
Important Safety Note
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning cautioning that high doses of biotin can interfere with diagnostic lab tests. This includes tests for troponin, which is an important biological marker that helps diagnose heart attacks. The FDA reported in November, 2017 that one patient died from misdiagnosis following false test results showing low levels of troponin.77
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Via activation of the carboxylase enzymes.8
Commonly referred to as heart disease.6